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CCE in GETTINGAHEAD IN SOCIAL SCIENCE 6, 7, 8

As you know, under the system of CCE, two types of assessment are to be conducted: formative assessment and summative assessment. Given below are some examples from the books to illustrate how Getting Ahead in Social Science 6, 7, 8 lends itself to promoting and actively encouraging CCE.
Each of the topics suggested by the CBSE Board for the assessment of CCE in Social Science has been taken up, and relevant examples from the books have been given.

Formative assessment
Commentaries on primary sources

Primary sources of information about history are those that are original, or created at the time of the event by people who witnessed the event. Artefacts from archaeological sites, coins, monuments, inscriptions, travelogues, autobiographies, government reports, letters, photographs, maps, diaries, newspapers, etc., are all primary sources of information.
A commentary is a written opinion or comment about something (here it would be the student’s opinion about something he/she read or heard).

1. GASS History 6: Sources of History Box on page 5: Go on the internet and look for the e-text of Fa Hien’s book A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, translated by James Legge. Read the chapter that deals Fa Hien’s travels in India and write a commentary on it.
2. GASS History 7: Sources of History Box page 32: Go on the internet, read extracts from the translation of the Baburnama at nalandainternational.wordpress.com/.../babar-nama-e-text/. Read the part which deals with Babur’s victory over Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat, and write a commentary on it.
3. GASS History 7: Page 85-86: Read the dohas of Kabir and write a commentary on Kabir and his dohas.
4. GASS History 8: Read Rabindranath Tagore’s Gitanjali, or Mulk Raj Anand’s Untouchable or RK Narayan’s Swami and Friends. Write a commentary on the chosen book.
5. GASS History 8: Interpretation of primary sources: Sources of History Box: Page 18
6. GASS Geography 8: Interpretation of primary sources: Activity: Page 13

Understanding and using secondary sources

Secondary sources of information are works that are based on primary sources of information. They include research papers, textbooks, biographies, magazines, newspapers and movies about historical events.

For the purpose of CCE, projects can be given to the children where they would be expected to do research and prepare a report on a topic with the help of secondary sources.
1. GASS History 6: Activity page 3: Do a project on any one of the ancient river valley civilisations.
2. GASS History 6: Activity page 56: Do a project on Alexander the Great
3. GASS History 6: Activity page 59: This activity could be used to evaluate students who are better at dramatics than at the traditional written form of examination.
4. GASS 7 Geography: Activity on Page 63
5. GASS 6 Geography: Activity on page 13
6. GASS 6 Geography: Activity on page 95
7. GASS 6 Civics: Activity on page 35, 39
8. GASS 6 Civics page 12 and GASS 7 Civics Page 40, 41: Activities based on a newspaper report. Such activities help the child relate what is learnt in class to real life situations.
9. GASS 8: Civics: Page 33, 39

Projects and presentations—investigative, informative, deductive, analytical

These projects could either be done individually or as group work based on research. The end result could be either shown in the form of presentations done on computers (using Power Point) or in the form of a booklet.
1. GASS History 6: Project page 3
2. GASS History 6: Project page 56
3. GASS 6 History: Project on page 32
4. GASS 6 Geography: Activity on page 24 is based on deductive and analytical reasoning
5. GASS 6 Geography: Projects on pages 30, 40, 92, 93
6. GASS 7 Geography: Projects on pages 45, 50, 71, 80, 89
7. GASS 6 Civics: Activity on page 45
8. GASS 7: Civics: Project on page 13, 29, 47
9. GASS 8: History: Project on page 51, 87
10. GASS 8 Geography: Project on page 40
11. GASS 8: Project on Disaster management: Pages 92, 93, 94
12. GASS 8: Civics: Project on page 45

Models and charts, pie charts and other forms of graphical representations, simulated activities

1. GASS 6 Geography: Activity on page 9
2. GASS 6 Geography: Activity on page 16-17, page 38
3. GASS 6 Geography: Activity on page 61: Flow Chart
4. GASS 6 Geography: Activity on page 78: Bar Graph
5. GASS 6 Geography: Activities on pages 82-83 Interpretation of graphs
6. GASS 6 Geography: Simulated Activities on pages 1, 10, 19, 20, 48
7. GASS 8 Geography: Activity on pages 9, 16, 17: Pie chart
8. GASS 8 Geography: Activity on page 43, 61: Flow chart
9. GASS 8 Geography: Activities on pages 82, 83: Interpretation of graphs

Questions based on pictures, Reports, Dairy Entries, Movies

1. GASS 6 History: Picture based activity: Page 17
2. GASS 6 Civics: Picture based activity: Page 17
3. GASS 7 History: Picture based activity: Page 97
4. GASS 8: History: Report: Page 54
5. GASS 8: History: Movie: Sources of History Box, Page 61

Debates and discussions, map-based activities, quizzes

1. GASS 6 Geography: Debate: Page 58
2. GASS 6 Geography: Discussion : Page 60
3. GASS 6 Civics: Discussion: page 15
4. GASS 7: Civics: Debate: Page 2
5. GASS 7 History: Debate: Page 88
6. GASS 8: History: Debate: Page 49
7. GASS 8: History: Debate/Discussion: Sources of History box, page 75
8. GASS 8: Geography: Debates: Pages 3, 5, 58
9. GASS 6 Geography: Map based activities on page 21, 22, 25, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39
10. GASS 8 Geography: Map based activities on pages: 21, 22, 25, 62

Comparison and contrast between regions or across time periods

1. GASS 8: History: Comparison across time periods: Activity on Page 68
2. GASS 6: Geography: Comparison across regions: Page 66
3. GASS 7: Geography: Comparison across regions: Page 80

Summative Assessment

Written assignments—multiple choice questions (MCQs), short and long answer questions, Open book test
There could be a number of Class Tests/Unit Tests with the percentage being finally reduced to the prescribed norm. But the children should be given constant feedback about their performance and chances given to improve their performance.

Teaching and assessing co-scholastic areas: life-skills, and attitudes and values

The CBSE lays great emphasis on the need to develop life-skills, and the correct attitudes and values in the children. The Getting Ahead series addresses these issues too.
There are extracts from the scriptures and religious books of all major religions of the world, emphasising the values of compassion, tolerance, non-violence, love for all human-kind, moderation and honesty. Several stories with morals find their place in the books.
The section on Social and Political Life deals with the need to rise above prejudice and to avoid discrimination of any kind. This is done with the help of stories, extracts from the autobiographies of leaders like Ambedkar, newspaper reports and thinking activities.
The need to protect and preserve the environment is repeatedly stressed in the books. The importance of democratic values like equality, justice, secularism and freedom are taught.
Children are taught about social evils like scavenging, untouchability, the ill-treatment of dalits and the continuing practice of discrimination in Indian society. Case studies of people, who have fought against the system and won, are included.
Life skills like how to file an FIR (GASS 8, Civics pages 41-42), how to use the Right to Information Act (GASS 8, Civics pages 26, 27) and the legal rights of women are highlighted (GASS 6 Civics page 44-45, GASS 8 Civics page 4-5).

To help you understand better how each of these activities could be used to assess a child’s comprehensive development, we have given examples from three chapters from Getting Ahead in Social Science 6.

Assignments for Formative Assessments

Given below are topics which could be used for continuous formative assessment of the children. All the children need not take part in all the assignments. Some might be good debaters, while some might be better with models and charts. You could ask each child to do the assignment most suited to his or her talents.

History
Chapter 1: When, where and why

1. Have a debate in class on the topic:Learning history is a waste of time
Points against the topic: History educates us; it gives us a sense of identity; it helps us understand our present; it teaches us not to repeat mistakes committed in the past; it makes us more tolerant and broad minded.
Points for the topic: pointless subject, does not equip us for the job market, does not teach us any skill, what kings long dead did is of no interest in today’s world
Grade the child on the basis of the force of his/her arguments, the language and the logical manner in which the child is able to put forth his or her ideas.

2. Activity on Page 3: Divide the class into groups of 5 and ask each group to prepare a project on any one of the River Valley Civilisations. They could either do a Power Point Presentation on the topic, or present it in the form of a booklet. Grade each group on the way the project is presented, and the originality of the material. Assess the children on the originality of their language (they should be told not to copy verbatim from the internet or other books, but to write the material in their own language).

3. Activity based on Sources of History Box on page 5 : Go on the internet and look for the e-text of Fa Hien’s book A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, translated by James Legge. Read the chapter that deals Fa Hien’s travels in India and write a commentary on it. A commentary is your opinion about the book—what you think about it.

4. Start a collection of coins.

Chapter 2: Early Humans—Hunters and Gatherers

1. Divide the class into groups and ask them to make a Power Point presentation on dinosaurs, or on early humans as hunters and gatherers, or on the Stone Age. If access to a computer is not there, the child could make a chart on any of the topics. Assess them on effective presentation, content and understanding of the subject. Ask them a few questions about the project. See if they are able to give a satisfactory explanation.

2. Show the children how a fire can be started by striking two pieces of stone (preferably flint) together. But do remember to explain to them the dangers of playing with fire.

3. Ask the children to find out how the cave painters made colours from natural substances. Ask them to make some in the class and use it to make paintings similar to those found in the caves. Grade the students on the quality of paint made, and the effectiveness of the paintings

4. Show the children pictures of different stone tools, and ask them to write what they think each tool was used for. If possible bring some actual samples to class, so that they can feel them and see. Grade them on the originality of their answers.

Geography
Chapter 2: Latitudes and Longitudes

1. Activity on page 10: Ask the children to make models of the Earth. They could use a ball as the base. The axis could be shown by passing a knitting needle, or any long needle-like object, through the centre of the ball. The model should show the latitudes and longitudes, and the outline of the continents.
This could be a group or an individual effort. Grade the children on the quality of the model and the accuracy of the features shown, their understanding, practical skills, and leadership skills (in case it is a group effort). Please ensure that the children do it on their own, without the help of their parents, or outside agencies.

2. Ask the children to bring their atlas to class. Make them do the activity on page 12. You could add the names of some more places. This would teach them to use the atlas. You could grade them on the accuracy of their results and the speed with which they are able to complete the assignment. Do help the children who are slower to locate the places. Show them how to locate places using latitudes and longitudes.

3. Ask the children to do a project on globes or maps. Globes and maps have a long and interesting history. They could find out when the first globes/maps were made, and how they slowly evolved till they became what we use today. The children could do a Power Point presentation on it. Evaluate the children on the basis of their basic understanding, practical skills, communication skills, organisational skills and presentation skill.

Social and Political Life
Chapter 2: Diversity, Prejudice and Discrimination

1. Newspaper article-based activity on page 12: Ask the children to read the cutting. Then ask them whether they know of any such instance of discrimination. And if they do, to share it with the rest of the class. Now, encourage the children to have an open discussion on the topic. Listen to them, and evaluate them on their attitude, the force of their arguments, their ability to express themselves, and their values.

2. Ask the children to do a project on the discrimination and prejudice against the Jewish people, with special reference to the atrocities committed against them during World War II. Encourage the children to read the book The Diary of Anne Frank. This is the diary of a 13-year-old Jewish girl and her family who were forced into hiding by the Nazis during World War II. The project can be either a group activity, or individual effort. You could ask them to do a Power Point presentation on the same. Evaluate the children on the basis of the depth of their understanding of the issue, the originality of language used, effectiveness of presentation, the nature of the images chosen, etc.

3. Do the activity on stereotyping on page 13. Let each child share his or her thoughts with the class. Then encourage them to have a discussion on stereotyping. Assess each child on how well he/she is able to express ideas.

4. Make the children do the assignments given at the end of the chapter (page 17). They can do a project on the life of any famous Indian woman. Or they can make a chart on the famous women of India. Make them do the diary entry based on the photograph shown on the page. Assess them on how well they are able to empathise with the ordeals of a differently-abled child.

5. Show them the movies mentioned. Make them express their feelings after that.